rugs Prevent clutter Avoid slippery floors Health promotion Daily sun exposure: 5 minutes per day Increase Vitamin D and calcium intake in the diet (dairy products and dark leafy green vegetables). Avoid alcohol. Avoid tobacco. Limit the intake of carbonated beverages. Include weight-bearing exercise at least 3 – 5 times per week. Encourage people at high risk to avoid activities that increase jarring, i.e. horseback riding. What systems are affected by immobility? o Cardiovascular (circulatory) o Musculoskeletal o Integumentary o GI/Nutrition o Psychological o Respiratory What systems are significantly affected by immobility o Cardiovascular o GI/Nutrition o Respiratory Range of Motion (ROM) Maximum Movement Active Range of Motion (AROM) Independent Joint Movement Passive Range of Motion (PROM) Dependent Joint Movement Body mechanics Coordinated use of the body to safely transfer clients from place to place. Use lift equipment to protect the care provider from injury. Body alignment Maintaining the body in alignment and balance while maintaining physiological functioning. Balance When the center of gravity is close to the base of support. Coordination Muscles work together to provide purposeful movement. Flexion Bending the hinge joint at 90 degrees. Extension Straightening the hinge joint to 180 degrees. Abduction Moving the joint away from the body. Adduction Moving the joint toward the body. Circumduction Ball and socket joint in a circular motion. Internal and external rotation: Turning the palm of the hand toward the ceiling then toward the floor. … Opposition Touching the thumb to each finger of the hand. Hip Replacement Prevention of complications Abduction pillow: prevents dislocation of a total hip joint replacement especially for a confused client Bed positioning (Fowler, high fowler, supine, prone, etc.)- o Fowler’s- Head of the bed 45 to 60 degrees o Lateral-Side lying position o Prone-Lying of the abdomen with head turned to one side o Sims- Semiprone position o Supine or dorsal recumbent position- Lying on the back

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