marijuana has little or no long-term adverse effects. b. Ecstasy causes reversible damage to serotonergic neurons. c. LSD does not cause an abstinence syndrome when it is withdrawn. d. Most individuals who abuse opioids began using them therapeutically. 2. A provider orders clonidine (Catapres) for a patient withdrawing from opioids. When explaining the rationale for this drug choice, the nurse will tell this patient that clonidine (Catapres) is used to: a. prevent opioid craving. b. reduce somnolence and drowsiness. c. relieve symptoms of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. d. stimulate autonomic activity. 3. What is the primary reason for opioid abuse? a. Ease of access b. Initial rush similar to orgasm c. Peer pressure d. Prolonged sense of euphoria 4. A nurse is discussing the differences between OxyContin OC and OxyContin OP with a group of nursing students. Which statement by a student indicates understanding of the teaching? a. OxyContin OC cannot be drawn into a syringe for injection. b. OxyContin OP has greater solubility in water and alcohol. c. OxyContin OP is not easily crushed into a powder. d. Patients using OxyContin OP are less likely to overdose. 5. A patient arrives in the emergency department complaining of dizziness, lightheadedness, and a pulsating headache. Further assessment reveals a blood pressure of 82/60 mm Hg and palpitations. The patients friends tell the nurse that they were experimenting with poppers. The nurse will expect to administer which medication? a. Diazepam (Valium) b. Haloperidol (Haldol) c. Methylene blue and supplemental oxygen d. Naloxone (Narcan) 6. A patient who has a long-term addiction to opioids takes an overdose of barbiturates. The nurse preparing to care for this patient will anticipate: a. a severe abstinence syndrome when the effects of the barbiturates are reversed. b. minimal respiratory depression, because the patient has developed a tolerance to opioids. c. observing pinpoint pupil, respiratory depression, and possibly coma in this patient. d. using naloxone (Narcan) to reverse the effects of the barbiturates, because cross-tolerance is likely.
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