strategies can increase internal validity * of an experimental study except: A. Control variables extraneous to the study B. Randomly assign subjects to groups C. Increase the diversity of the sample D. Use consistent, accurate measures 3. Experimental studies measure cause and effect. The variable that is synonymous with the ’cause’ is referred to as the: A. Dependent variable B. Independent variable C. Extraneous variable D. Descriptive variable 4. The variable that is synonymous with the outcome of * interest is called the: A. Dependent variable B. Independent variable C. Extraneous variable D. Descriptive variable 5. The variables that portrays the sample or some characteristic of the phenomenon under study is referred to as the: A. Dependent variable B. Independent variable C. Extraneous variable D. Descriptive variable 6. Factors that exert an effect on the outcome but that are not part of the planned experiment and may confuse the interpretation of the results are referred to as: A. Extraneous variables B. Situational factors C. Dependent variables D. Confounding factors 7. Which of the following research designs is used to answer questions that seek to investigate causality? A. Survey design B. Correlational design C. Experimental design D. Cross-sectional design 8. All of the following research designs describe relationships between variables except: A. Correlational B. Grounded theory C. Phenomenology D. Tests of model fit 9. A common descriptive research design where data is collected from a sample over time to describe changes in characteristics or events is referred to as a: A. Case study B. Cross-sectional study C. Single subject design D. Longitudinal study 10. A research study design that examines causality where the treatment is introduced to a group but random assignment and/or a control group is missing is called A. Causal-comparative design B. Correlational design C. Quasi-experimental design D. Case control design

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