describe-the-difference-between-correlation-and-causation-2

Instructions:Following the guidelines for discussion boards in the syllabus and materials provided in the “all about discussion boards.” Check this link for complete instructions: (Discussion Board Grading and rubric)Fully address two (2) of the “textbook” questions and; four (4) of the five “other materials” questions. That’s six (6) questions in all.Number each response.Use bold text when referencing a key concept from course materials. (e.g. “My workplace demonstrates mechanical solidarity, which means that…”; or “The main difference between social capital and cultural capital is that…”NOTE: Remember, you should do 1 original post before midterm and 1 original post after midterm. You will ONLY be graded on your first original post submitted in each of these periods. You should also do two replies to classmates before midterms and two replies to classmates after midterms. You will only be graded on your first two replies in each of these periods.TEXTBOOK QUESTION SETS (Choose 2) Describe one research method listed in your textbook. What is a research question you could use this method to study? Who would your population be, and how could you find research participants or data to analyze?In the 1940s, 241 prisoners at the Terre Haute federal prison were injected with gonorrhea so doctors could study potential treatments. The prisoners who participated were informed of the purpose and consented to take part. They received $100, a certificate of merit, and a letter of commendation to the parole board if they completed the study. The doctors ultimately said they didn’t get any useful data. Why is this project now considered unethical? Does it matter that the subjects all consented?In your own words, what is an “independent variable,” a “dependent variable,” and a “spurious relationship”? A common example of a spurious relationship is the relationship between ice cream sales and crime. As sales of ice cream go up, crime also increases. What other factors might explain this apparent relationship? What could the real cause be?Describe the difference between correlation and causation. Why is it more difficult to establish causation than to establish correlation? What can you do to try to identify whether causation exists? What is one example of something from your own life where something seemed like it was because of one thing, but really it wasn’t? (example: “I failed a test and it seemed like it was because I didn’t study, but really it was because I had a bad headache during the test and couldn’t focus.”)“OTHER MATERIALS” QUESTION SETS (Choose 4)Sociology basics with Instructor Ide video: Choose either the micro, meso, or macro level of analysis. What makes this level of analysis different from the other levels of analysis? What is one topic you could study at this level of analysis? Write one research question at this level, and identify one research method that you could use to address this research question. Why would this be a useful method?Tuskegee experiment podcast: Clearly referencing the podcast on the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and reading about the study in your textbook, describe the ethical considerations of this study. Were you aware of this study before? How did you feel learning or hearing about this study?Were these experiments ethical? reading: Describe one of the experiments discussed in this reading. Since these were done by private companies, and not university researchers, they did not have to get I.R.B. approval (see p. 6 in your textbook). If they had to try and get approval, how do you think the board might have suggested they change their research? How would you feel if you found out you were an unwitting “participant” in these experiments?Examples of participant observations reading: Choose one of the studies described, and review the extended material on the study (found in a link in each description). Why do you think the sociologist chose participant observation instead of another research method? If they had to choose another method to study their topic, which would you suggest, and why? Were there any ethical issues you can identify with this study?
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