ADOPTION OF BIULDING INFORM ATION M ODELLING IN AUSTRALIA
STUDENT NAM E
DEPARTM ENT OF CIVIL ENGINEEERING
SUBM I …
ADOPTION OF BIULDING INFORM ATION M ODELLING IN AUSTRALIA
STUDENT NAM E
DEPARTM ENT OF CIVIL ENGINEEERING
SUBM ITTED TO FULL FIL REQUIREM ENTS
FOR DEGREE OF M ASTER OF IN CIVIL ENGINEERING
This study proposes a paradigm for the imple me nta tio n of building informatio n modeling in
Australia, which is based on internatio na l best practices. Specifica lly, the emphasis is on small
and medium -sized constructio n companies, who are having trouble adapting to this new
technology of constructio n manageme nt. The model offered evaluates BIM installatio n,
includ ing the diffic ulties encountered during imple me ntatio n, costs, and advantages. Several
factors, such as knowledge support (kSup), BIM adoption (BIMA), Adoption motivatio n (Amo),
prospective Challenges(pC ha l), and potential Benefits (Pben) which are provided in the BIM
adoption model, are shown to be influe ntia l in the BIM adoption process. The literature on BIM
adoption in Australia is provided first, and then research data is gath ered via intervie ws with
representatives from differe nt stakeholders in the Australia n constructio n sector is compiled.
In order to study the respondents’ comprehensio n of build ing informa tio n technology and to
evaluate connectio ns of the hypothesized latent factors effecting BIM deployme nt at their
constructio n businesses, structural and descriptive modeling were used together to obtain the
required results . In order to conduct analysis on differe nce of non -BIM users and the user a Ï‡ 2
wa s utilized , with this intrest applicatio n , terms of BIM comprehensio n, and attitudes about the
advantages and obstacles of BIM deployme nt would be easily studied . When it comes to SMOs,
the potential advantages connected wit h building informa tio n modelli ng were the most
significa nt motivator concerning BIM imple me ntatio n in Australia . Furthermore, the capacity of
current personnel to use BIM tools has a favorable impact on the constructio n of an
organiza tio na l knowledge -support system, which ultimate ly in flue nces the choice to embrace
BIM. Finally, there is a pressing need to place more focus on employee participatio n in the
imple me ntatio n process. In this study, we offer find ings that are relevant t o small constructio n
firms . It is necessary to evaluate B IM adoption at firms engaged in non -build ing activities, such
as civil constructio n and infrastruc ture, in the future. According to the results obtained in the
paper it was noted that concentrating on only the importance of BIM imple me nta tio n paved way
for an effort which enable the researcher to assess problems which are experienced during BIM
imple me ntatio n, it also enables an excelle nt establishme nt of knowledge support system and one
could engage employees in the use of building informa tio n systems. Fol lowing the findings of
this research, we were able to gain knowledge of variety of problems which most of the small
constructio n firms in Australia are experiencing. This study is clearly unique since most of the
previous papers have focus on large constru ctio n firms leaving small firms neglected and lagging
behind in terms of development.
TABLE OF CONTENT
ABS TRAC T ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …. 2
TABLE OF CONTENT ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………… 4
CHAPTER 1 ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. … 6
1.1 INTRODUCTION ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 6
1.1.1 Adoptio n o f BIM in Austra lia ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………. 7
1.1.2 Back gro und ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………… 8
1.1.3 BIM a nd de sign ma na ge me nt ………………………….. ………………………….. …………….. 11
1.2 Aim ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. . 17
1.3 Objectives ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………….. 17
CHAPTER 2 ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. . 18
1.4 Litera ture re vie w ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 18
1.4.1 BIM tec hno lo gy adop tio n. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………. 19
1.4.2 Mana ge me nt o f design projects using BIM ………………………….. ………………………. 20
1.4.3 Interope rab ility ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …….. 21
1.4.4 Using BIM for Co mmunica tio n a nd Coord inatio n ………………………….. …………….. 23
1.4.5 BIM de sign c ha nge s ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. 25
1.4.6 Acq uisitio n o f da ta ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. .. 26
1.4.7 Ana lysis o f da ta ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……. 26
1.4.8 Reporting a nd highlig hting ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………… 27
1.4.9 Informatio n e va lua tio n a nd ma na ge me nt ………………………….. ………………………….. 28
1.4.10 Constructab ility ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……. 29
1.4. 11 Use o f BIM in the e xa minatio n o f co nstruc tab ility ………………………….. ……………. 29
1.4.12 Space re vie w ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ……….. 30
1.4.13 Measure me nt re vie w ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………………. 30
1.4.14 Detec tio n o f C lashes ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………………. 31
CHAPTER 3 ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. . 32
1.5 Resea rc h Methodo lo gy ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. … 32
1.5.1 Mode l de ve lop me nt ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. . 32
1.5.2 Variab les o f proposed BIM adoptio n mode l ………………………….. ……………………… 34
1.5.3 Build ing informatio n mode lling (BIM) p roposed adop tio n mode l ……………………. 40
CHAPTER 5 ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. . 41
1.6 Results a nd da ta a na lysis ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. 41
1.6.1 Ana lysis a nd surve y design me thods ………………………….. ………………………….. …… 41
1.6.2 The ge nera l informatio n o f the respo nde nts ………………………….. ……………………… 43
1.6.3 Surve y respo nse o n k no wled ge o f BIM ………………………….. ………………………….. .. 44
1.6.4 BIM app lica tio ns ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ….. 46
1.6.5 Be ne fits o f BIM imp le me nta tio n ………………………….. ………………………….. ………… 49
1.6.6 Cha lle nges o f BIM adoptio n ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………. 51
1.6.7 Measure me nt mode l a na lysis ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………… 53
1.6.8 Ana lysis o f S truc tura l mode l ………………………….. ………………………….. ……………… 56
CHAPTER 5 ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. . 58
1.7 Disc ussio n ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………. 58
1.8 Practic a l imp le me ntatio n ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. 62
CHAPTER 6 ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. . 63
1.9 Conc lusio n ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………………. 63
1.10 Reco mme nd atio ns a nd F uture work ………………………….. ………………………….. ……….. 64
1.11 Re fe re nce List ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. …………. 66
APPENDIX ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. ………………………….. … 71
This chapter gives context for the topic at hand and how building informa tio n modelling (BIM)
improves design manage me nt . Adoption of BIM technology in Australia is discussed and
background research why BIM is needed in Australia n constructio n industry. Fr om the
informatio n provided objectives for the paper has been formula ted and research question
presented based on the literature. The gap for innovatio n in constructio n has been identified and
BIM is presented as an excellent technolo gy which a lot of pote ntial to revolutio nize Australia n
constructio n industry.
Global construction sector
The global constructio n sector is one of the most significa nt in the world. There are many
differe nt types of constructio n businesses. A ustralia n economic devel opment depends heavily on
the success of the industry, but the sector is presently dealing with a slew of issues that might
jeopardize that success.
There are several types of constructio n projects, includ ing building constructio n, civil
engineering, mecha nica l/e lectrica l engineering, as well as demolitio n. Disputes , delays, and cost
overruns are common in the constructio n sector, which makes it vulnerab le to these issues. As a
whole, constructio n is unique among industries since it shares many traits with other businesses.
1.1.1 Adoption of BIM in Australia
Compared to North America, BIM adoption in Australia is around 20% lower ( Adamson, 2006 ).
Constructio n in Australia is dominated by small constructio n firm , such firms have a huge
impact of Austrian constructio n industry and they account for more than ninety percent of
constructio n operations and provide the majority of the industry’s overall revenue (A shworth,
2006 ). Only 0.5 percent of constructio n enterprises i n Australia employ more than 13 workers,
according to an estimate by the Australia n Bureau of Statistics ( Barnes,2020 ). There are a
considerable number of small and medium -sized businesses (SMEs) involved in the building
supply chain, as noted by Poirier e t al., and this shows the tremendous benefic ia l influe nce BIM
may have on the constructio n sector (2015).
Until now, BIM has been seen as a constructio n industry first in terms of technica l innovatio n. In
this regard, data shows that small and medium -size d businesses (SMEs) perceive innovatio ns in
a very different manner from giant corporations ( Bastet , 2021 ). “…those that are not involved
with BIM tend to be smaller organiza tio ns, ” says McGraw -Hill (2014). In the words of Sexton
and (Hardin, 2011) “this divergence must be appreciated, and underlie policy and business
advice.” However, as emphasized by Poirier et al., the use of innovatio n diffusio n models is
necessary to fully grasp any inventio n in a specific environme nt, such as Australia n SMEs
(2015). Therefore, researchers can gain understanding of the complex nature of the context
which includes factors such as market environme nt and mediating factor which generally
influe nc e the rate of innovatio n of a technology. (Poirier et al., 2015). In li ght of this, a literature
analysis finds a that there is considerably little research which has been conducted to investigate
small constructio n firm on their utilizatio n of BIM . For this reason, the study’s goa l is to present
an overview of where things a re in Australia concerning the adoption of BIM by regards to small
constructio n firmsâ€™ adoption of BIM, using the princip les of innovatio n diffusio n in the
constructio n industry.
Providing an overview of the current conditio n of an inventio n is an importa nt first step toward
pinpointing the most successful strategies for removing roadblocks and increasing adoption, as
stated by (Gardener et.al, 2014 ). In addition, the research aims to discover the most important
factors driving Australia n SMEs to use BIM i n their projects. For the sake of advancing BIM in
any setting, it is thought vital to look at the primary motivatio ns of organiza tio ns, as well as how
well they understand the demands and diffic ulties of BIM (Gu and London, 2010).
It is argue d that using BIM in build ing projects will facilitate effective informatio n sharing
among project participants by developing effic ie nt logistic s and procurement processes. Despite
these well -docume nted benefits, research by (Ngatia,2019) paints a bleak ima ge of BIM adoption
in the Australia since the region has continued to lag behind in its imple me nta tio n of BIM
especially in its small constructio n firms.
According to (Kestin et.al ,2022 ), finding and the research which investigated on small
constructio n firms in Australia he noted that most of the firms which were employing BIM most
of them had a net revenue of more than one millio n dollars while most of the small constructio n
didnâ€™t have any initia tive to imple me nt BIM. Groups which professiona l construc tio n such as
AIRAH, have made boosting BIM use a top priority (2013). However, it seems that such efforts
are limited to big projects because to the widespread notion that larger organiza tio ns have the
skills and resources necessary to imple me nt BIM, as no ted by (Hosseini et.al, 2021) . However,
SMEs may benefit more from BIM than large -scale projects, according to (Kuiper, 2013 ).
There are more chances to employ BIM in short -term projects because of their shorter durations,
and small businesses are better equipped to use BIM since they are smaller (2014). McGraw -Hill
(2014) asserts that 3D images generally improve the quality of communica tio n between various
parties of constructio n in henceforth improved the project result this case was also simila r in
smal l constructio n firms. The small constructio n firms were noted to lower levels of
innovative ness and face special challe nges in harnessing the advantages of innovatio ns, such as a
lack of resources and expertise and a scarcity of qualified staff (Sexton and Barrett, 2003).
According to this, growing BIM adoption in an organiza tio n requires that prospective BIM
among small and medium sized companies 693 adopters believe that BIM can meet their
organiza tio ns’ specific objectives and also conduct the necessary explanatio n of the various
driving force on the matter (Gu and London, 2010).
According to Hosseini et al., The finding suggested that most firms conducted and weighted on
the cons and pros of imple me nta tio n of BIM, this was the solid foundatio n on which most of the
decision of if BIM imple me nta tio n was necessary was based on.
According to research by (Kiama et al ,20 19) on Australia n constructio n firms and some based
on Hong Kong small constructio n firms had a differe nt attitude and motivatio ns for adopting
BIM. There was a disparity between the drivers, however the type of drivers for small
constructio n firms were overlooked in the research. (Liu et.al, 2022 ) found that the cost of BIM
imple me ntatio n for small businesses is greater than that for big businesses because of their
distinct organiza tio na l patterns, which need different training and hardware requireme nts. The
previous research didn’t pay much attention to SMEs’ motivatio ns and all the practices which
were necessary to be imple me nted in ord er to reap maximum benefits of BIM utilizatio n.
Researchers from McGraw -Hill (2014) found that various constructio n workers in both Australia
and the neighboring New Zealand were lagging behind the architects and designers who seemed
to adopt BIM more, ev en though most of the user of BIM liked BIM for its ability to detect
hidden clashes in the building and errors which further minimized the number of reworks. A
study by McGraw -Hill (2014) found that small constructio n firm generally had a lower rate of
BI M adoption compared to corporate firms which were more likely to use BIM in their daily
Lu et.al, 20 21 , the advantages of BIM for Australia n firms are hindered by a variety of hurdles,
includ ing the need for specialized equipment, software, and staff , especially in small and
medium -sized enterprises (SMEs) with under 20 workers. Because of this, the research focused
on the challenges faced by small businesses rather than their motivatio ns.
According to (Malla, et.al , 2012) in the South Australia n con structio n sector, BIM is used to
improve constructab ility, improve visua liza tio n, discover conflicts, and increase project
effic ie nc y. Malla also emphasized the role of company size and lack of understand ing as
roadblocks to BIM deployment on South Austral ia n constructio n projects (2012). However, there
was no mention in the report of the reasons for the adoption of BIM or how the small
constructio n firms were using BIM, according to various articles it is noted that there are various
case studies which hav e been done to conduct investigatio n on the obstacles which hinders
imple me ntatio n of BIM in most of their big projects. Thu s, there is a lack of research on BIM in
small constructio n firms in Australia. An attempt was made to fill up this informatio n gap by
carrying out the current research, which will be discussed in more detail below.
1.1.3 BIM and de sign manage me nt
The constructio n design industry’s core stakeholders, consultants, are the principa l agents for
achieving the industry’s design criteria. They a re project -based enterprises that focus primarily
on designing and overseeing projects. Managing and controlling this output of design is a
significa nt challenge. These procedures are effective ly managed by the field of design
manageme nt. During the design phase of a project, the manage me nt functio n is separated from
the design functio n by a professiona l discipline called Design Management. Nowadays, it’s a
vital part of contemporary building projects (Gray and Hughes 2001). Design manageme nt may
be describ ed as the manage me nt of people and informatio n (Emmitt and Ruikar 2013 ). We can
therefore define BIM as a digita l approach to constructio n and asset manageme nt. Technology,
process enhanceme nts and digita l informa tio n are all brought together in order to i mprove client
and project results and asset operations dramatica lly. More than just a planning and design tool,
BIM is now being used in the constructio n of a project’s infrastructure, from water and
wastewater to energy and waste manageme nt to roads and b ridges to ports and everything in
between . To meet the rising need for BIM in constructio n projects’ design and constructio n, the
AEC (Architectura l, Enginee ring, and Constructio n) sector is adapting.
BIM had great benefits and it has been shown that both public and private sector are insisting on
it adoption by constructio n firms this can be based due to its importance such as it assist in clash
detection, better energy analysis, the constructio n can perform life cycle analysis of the build ing
and there i s better visualiza tio n of the building. Apart from this BIM is very benefic ia l on project
administratio n and manageme nt.
Proble m state me nt
There is a major problem in constructio n sector where traditiona l methods of constructio n are
still preferred over modern methods of constructio n like BIM, most of the constructio n firm s are
reluctant in adopting this new technology of constructio n. BIM technology has been identified to
be an excelle nt technology for building design manageme nt, BIM is able to iden tify Numerous
characteristic s of the design process, all of which interact with one another and make
manageme nt challenging.
There are two main reasons why the process is iterative and vaguely defined; first, it needs a lot
of outputs to comprehend both d esign challe nges and potential solutio ns; and second, it takes a
lot of iteratio n. As a second point, this is done by a broad group of people, all of whom bring
distinct perspectives, educationa l backgrounds, and career aspirations to the table. In order t o
achieve success, the process requires a great deal of coordinatio n and discussio n, as well as
consensus and compromise, typically under a great deal of uncertainty and time pressure , with
such complexity in building design manageme nt it is a necessity fo r Australia n constructio n
firm s to adopt BIM despite the challenge s they experience .
There has been analytica l study done on the performance of constructio n contracts that compares
their results to worldwide best practices, such as UK practice. Differe nc e s between the country’s
building sector and best practices reveal the underestima tio n of completio n time, design
modificatio ns, scope shifts, changes in work volume and other factors all contribute to project
cost and schedule overruns. Study find ings furt her reveal signific a nt gaps in strategic project
planning and preparation, as well as gaps in design and tender documentatio n, in the early phases
of the project cycle. Ineffective contract imple me ntatio n manage me nt, includ ing risk
manageme nt and performan ce monitoring methods, is also a significa nt gap .
Fig 1.1 Study findings
BIM has been shown to have a signific a nt impact on design manage me nt, according to recent
research. Instead of a single software package, BIM is a technology that provides an integr ated
platform for improving design, speeding up delivery for both design and constructio n, and
mainta ining a continuo us flow of informa tio n. Despite this, the AEC industry as a whole agrees
that BIM is currently too immature to be fully imple me nted through o ut the constructio n lifecyc le
due to issues such issues includ e educational and training requireme nt, interoperability, culture
changes, technologica l maturity and there is laxity in BIM standards.
BIM technology is still widely used in the AEC sector a cross the globe includ ing in Australia .
Much changes can be done by introduc ing constructio n methodolo gie s and tools, this will in turn
create major technology transfer and usage shift would occur.
As part of the planning process, BIM was hailed as a game -changer. Therefore, a research -based
study of the design manage me nt practice of BIM -based projects is needed, and it is essential to
record the signific a nt problems and barriers in its adoption and the important lessons learnt
througho ut the projects for future studies and wor k.
Failure s of traditional construction me thods and w hy BIM is ne e de d in construction.
Even while design manageme nt has come a long way, there are still just a few instances of it
being a complete success. There is a lack of coordinatio n across disciplines, insuffic ie nt
documentatio n, inadequate or missing input informa tio n, poor informa tio n manageme nt, and
inconsiste nt de cision -mak ing in current practice.
A large portion of this is due to the diffic ulty of the design process. Despite this, many existing
ways to controlling the design process are ineffective. When the design process is unstructured, it
makes it diffic ult f or all stakeholders involved to have a common knowledge of what is going on.
The following is a list of the most common issues and reasons of poor DM.
(i) De sign panning. The ability to exercise administrative influe nce over the design process and
increase cross -disciplinary coordinatio n is impossib le without an effic ie nt and practical design
program. However, it is often designed to meet the needed timefra mes for the distributio n the
necessary data required by the constructor and then followed by the respec tive procu rement
processes and lasty the design of the building . Due to constructio n accounting for the majority of
project expenses, the lack of prioritizing project planning can be understandable but the quality
of the design program and design solution and informa tio n is becoming more recognizab le.
Though it’s common to believe that a creative and iterative design process is impossib le to plan
in detail, this is a misconceptio n fostered by a lack of knowledge of design informatio n flow,
interdepende nce, and the availability of appropriate planning strategies Informatio n flow and
reliance are poorly understood since each discipline does not comprehend how their work
contributes to the total building design process, resulting in a planning approach ( Ngatia, 2019 ).
This means that a lack of knowledge of design processes leaves the identifica tio n and
coordinatio n of cross -disciplinary informatio n to the skill of design planners or project managers .
Thus, a low -quality development project is produced with ramif ica tio ns for design discipline
coordinatio n and general process manageme nt. Another problem with inadequate design
planning is that resources are typically allocated in an unequal manner. In the beginning, this
may cause some delays yet it may also lead to more serious issues. As new designers get
acquainted with the project’s features, needs, and history, more delays are introduced. As a result,
there may be more design errors and time -consuming rework as a resu lt.
(ii) constructio n inte gration and de sign
M ost of the constructio n firmsâ€™ projects will always involve a huge number of employees with a
variety of talents, interests and hobbies who are working together within a limited time and then
separating when their respective tasks are completed. Considerin g this nature of operation of
most constructio n firms this creates substantia l communicatio n gaps which complicated the
building process. However , the design step is critical to the success of the project. Maintaining a
high level of quality in the early s tages of a project helps to avoid diffic ultie s in the later stages,
as well as ensuring that clients are satisfied at the end.
(iii) M anage me nt of informatio n. Informatio n processing is an essential part of every project’s
design process, although this is often neglected in the constructio n sector. Currently, the majority
of design informatio n is managed via the use of schedules that are pre -programmed to provide
informatio n to contractors when they need it. Bad planning practices are a factor in poor
infor matio n manageme nt because they don’t address the underlying logic of the design process.
So as a consequence, designers aren’t given the correct amount of informatio n when they need it,
and they’re overburdened with unneeded informa tio n. Due to this, there is a possibility of design
tasks being failed, analysis being insuffic ie nt, and erroneou s judgments being made, all of which
may lead to waste in the process. The irregular transmissio n of informa tio n and the unexpected
completio n of precursor work may swiftly lead to the abandoning of design planning, repeating a
loop that is likely to lead to more challenge s. As a result, inadequate informa tio n manageme nt is
a critica l factor in project success.
(iv) De sign change s .
In the building sector, design alteratio ns are a major issue. It is estimated that the cost may range
between five to fifteen percent of the entire constructio n expenditure, this simply accounts for
around half of the designerâ€™s total labor hours. Itâ€™s possible that these prices may be much higher
since they don’t account for the indirect cost and time delays , litigatio n expenses , and other
intangib le components of constructio n. This suggest that even though a constructio n project can
be termed to be well managed around two third of the design revision done on the building can
be easily avoided by using BIM. There is a lot of room for development here, so why is it so
diffic ult to keep things under control . This is the question that most of the researchers are asking.
Newton and Hedges ( 2006 ) note that standard design manageme nt approaches cannot anticipate
the impact of program a nd fee changes. As a result, it is diffic ult to identify all of the alternative
change routes and choose which one is the most effective to pursu e.
Many design modificatio ns are being made without considering all of the possible consequences,
since presen t tools and human judgment cannot account for all of the interactio ns that affect the
result collective ly. To successfully oversee and manage design changes, it is necessary to have
an understand ing of the long -term consequences of design changes. A projec t’s success is more
likely to occur if modifica tio ns can be more effective ly managed.
The main aim of this paper was perform a through assessment of BIM adoption in Australia.
Most of the constructio n firms still use conventio na l constructio n method an d there is a need to
integrate BIM in their projects.
1.3 Obje ctive s
1. To develop a model which can be used to represent the adoption of BIM in Austra lia
constructio n firms.
2. To assess the benefits and challenge s that constructio n firms encounter when imple me n t in g
BIM in different phases of their constructio n projects.
3. To gain insights of BIM adoption in small constructio n firms since most of the previo us
studies have focused on major constructio n and architectura l firms leaving adoption in
small firms to lag behi nd.
4. To analyze various variable that can be used to fasten the practical imple me ntatio n of BIM
and access their impact such variables includ e knowledge support (Ksup), potentia l
Benefits(pBe n), adoption motivatio n (Amo) and BIM adoption (BIMA).
1.4 Lite rature re vie w
Traditio na l computer -aided technology (CAD) is still used by half of constructio n firms in
Australia . Some seventy percent of contractors and more than a half of architects are utilizing
BIM, according to research by Allen Consulting Group (2010). Some researchers believe that
this is related to the problems of using and mainta ining BIM files. Constructio n sector BIM
adoption rates are low due to a lack of awareness of the elements that influe nc e the adoption of
BI M in constructio n organizatio ns, which must be identified and addressed. Although many
studies have been done to examine variables that influe nce BIM adoption in big architectura l
firms and large -scale build ing projects, this is not the only area of resear ch.
This research provides a solid knowledge of the elements that influe nce the choice to impleme nt
BIM in big constructio n projects or architectura l firms, but the applicatio n of the published
results to BIM adoption in constructio n small constructio n fi rm s is still uncertain.
Small constructio n firm s are distinct from bigger constructio n firm s in terms of both financ ia l
and technica l resources. The organiza tio na l structures of companies vary according to their sizes,
and this may lead to significa nt disp arities in how the advantages of BIM adoption, problems of
BIM imple me ntatio n, and motivatio n levels of decision makers are viewed. As a consequence,
despite the crucial role that constructio n industry plays in economic developme nt, there is
currently litt le emphasis paid to BIM adoption .
Small Constructio n firm s have a substantia l market share; therefore, it is projected that deploying
BIM at small constructio n firm s would lead to a rise in productivity in the country. However, the
lack of BIM -experienced employees at constructio n firms impedes the widespread use of BIM in
their everyday operations.
According to (Eastman et al. 2011), the present barrier for most organiza tio ns is a shortage of
properly qualified employees, not the technology itself. It is possible that BIM adoption
advantages may not be realized due to a lack of technical competence.
1.4.1 BIM te chnology adoption.
Adoption of BIM is regarded to be directly linked to innovatio n adoption, as stated in the
literature. It is possible to think of th e Rogers innovatio n diffusio n model underlined the
favorable impacts of excellent innovatio n imple me nta tio n, while (Odhiambo, 20 13) stressed the
need of examining particular actions at each imple me nta tio n stage. It was stated by (Manley,
2009) that constru ctio n firms should focus on the legislatio n imple me nted acting as guidelines
for BIM adoption, the relevance of governme nt rules was pointed out in the study.
Australia n small constructio n firms have been studied in the literature for the effect of BIM
ado ption. The readiness of customers, subcontractors, and industry norms to adopt BIM for a
project was measured using a diffusio n model given by (Hosseini, 2017 ) for example.
Supply chain effect on practical BIM deployment in a project is assessed by the desire of an
organiza tio n to embrace BIM. According to Rodgers et al. (2015), a study on BIM knowledge
among South Australia n SMEs found that customers had the greatest influe nce on the adoption
of BIM by smaller constructio n firm s. Several factors demonstrated multico llinearity diffic ulties
in the Hong et al. (2016) model for organiza tio na l BIM adoption. The absence of BIM
experience among subcontractors was rated by (Hosseini , 2016) as one of 13 impedime nts to the
imple me ntatio n of BIM. According to existing research, there is a paucity of studies that analyze
the adoption of BIM in an organizatio na l environme nt.
1.4.2 M anage me nt of de sign proje cts using BIM
One of the most common criticisms of the constructio n business is that it’s too fragme nted. Calls
for the industry to reform are becoming louder and louder. Design, constructio n, and the whole
supply chain must all be reimagined in light of this new vision, which emphasize s tea mwork and
creativity. It is possible to integrate the processes “integrating the team,” such as constructing
informatio n models, using innovatio n and new technology (BIM).
The design team was unanimo us in their belief that they were in charge of design ma nageme nt
inside their business. Design managers and clients are seen to be catalysts for innovatio n. Current
industria l practices for utilizing BIM technology provide both a problem and an opportunity .
Build ing informatio n modelling provides a platform for change in the design, constructio n, and
mainte na nce of build ings. As a result of this paradigm change, constructio n professiona ls’
education must be rethought. BIM is becoming more popular in the constructio n industry
because of its several well -docume nte d advantages, includ ing lower project costs, shorter project
durations, and better communicatio n, coordinatio n, and quality control. BIM use in the design
process offers several advantages, not the least of which are enhanced multid isc ip linary methods
of c ommunicatio n and coordinatio n while providing common understanding among the des ign
team and other constructio n workers.
A complete informatio n manageme nt technology such as BIM has the ability to simulate the
constructio n technique options while givin g the needed 3D visua l representation . Designing
using BIM is more than just creating 3D models; it enables for virtual tours within a facility,
evaluating many design possibilitie s with their potential consequences on the project. As a result,
BIM makes i t easier to communica te design goals, issues, and updates. A BIM -based approach
may also help to improve overall design quality by identifying and resolving disputes and
confrontatio ns across various disciplines, resulting in fewer coordinatio n mistakes.
In Chin (Lee et.al , 2018 ) conducted a case study using BIM. Because 2D design is still
necessary for regulatory clearances and BIM software cannot automatica lly create 2D shop
drawings in complia nce with industry requireme nts in China, the usage of BIM ma y not decrease
total design time, according to the findings (Ding et al, 2012). The expenses of manually
coordinating mechanica l, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) systems might still be saved by using
BIM, which could reduce the amount of change orders and e nhance design quality (Yung et al.,
1.4.3 Inte rope rability
Communica tio n is the initia l value level of BIM interoperability. 3D modeling is the primary
focus in this level. This has to do with interoperability since 3D representatio n makes the design
easi er to comprehend and, as a result, easier to communica te. Coordinatio n is the second level.
Combo avoidance and detection are anticipated at this level. The third level, referred to as
collaboratio n, is where the entire 3D BIM is intended to be imple me nted . Supply chain visib ility,
constructio n and energy modeling, and cost prediction are all examples of this.
When agents work together to gain a competitive edge, this level is where it’s at! BIM
collaborative spaces are assumed for the next level of collaboratio n, which is teamwork. Lastly,
the channel wants an automated environme nt to pervade the whole process, from start to finish â€”
this includes manufa cturing. Build ing SMART is an organizatio n dedicated to developing BIM
interoperability solutions, and it is this group that established the IFC (Industry Foundation
Fig 1.1 Meaning of interoperability in BIM
IFC is a BIM platform -indepe nde nt file format. According to the literature, building informatio n
modeling is projected to play a significa nt role in the AEC industry’s interoperability. However,
experts believe that additiona l progress is needed t o get interoperability to the point where BIM
is completely established and operational (or at least with most agents connected). BIM has yet
to be widely adopted in the AEC sector, particularly in terms of data format and business
sharing. The least estab lished of the four concerns, data interoperability will need more research
on interoperability issues, with a particular emphasis on how to enhance IFC files. IFC data
interoperability for the AEC sector must not be taken for granted while developing syste ms and
their capacity to create IFC files. To increase IFC interoperability in cast -in-place concrete
constructio ns, extra attention must be paid to materials, geometrica l properties, and details.
1.4.4 Using BIM for Communica tio n and Coordination
You may commun icate and collaborate with BIM using any of a number of different methods.
Second, actors may collaborate online in a shared environme nt and present pictures to clients or
end users using virtual reality to prepare this collaboratio n by sharing BIM goals, for example,
rules and procedures. You may use BIM standards , policy , guidelines, and execution plants to
communicate your BIM needs and project outcomes. For example, the distinctio n between
standards and protocols is that standards specify the project’s desired goal, while protocols detail
the steps necessary to attain it (Cavka et al, 2017). The concept of a ‘border object,’ which might
be virtua l, physical, or electronic, has recently emerged as a new way of looking at BIM.
Boundary objects may be inte rpreted differe ntly by various players, necessitating the presence of
a third party who can provide a common understand ing. They might also be referred to as a
boundary broker or a boundary spanner. With the confidence of the other players, and the
transla tio n of the boundary object’s meaning amongst them, the boundary broker acts as an
intermed ia ry in projects. The lifespan of a building involve s a large number of people,
interactio ns, and bodies of informatio n. Because of the lengthy duration of this life cyc le,
communicatio n and integratio n will be critical for a very long time.
The design phase is when the practicality and use of a building are determined. BIM systems
may be used to handle these large volumes of data to promote interoperability and to im prove
facility manage me nt. Many problems or improve me nts may be found in the usage of BIM, such
as the processing of a lot of data and the requireme nt for professiona l expertise by managers to
access the informa tio n. Inaccurate data, such as that resulting from incorrect human entry, may
also impede manageme nt efforts. Automated data manageme nt technique s have been proposed
that allow stakeholders to extract informa tio n from the design and constructio n phases and to
communicate this informatio n on a shared platform. They’re discussing ways to enhance their
system, like includ ing the Internet of Things, educating data analysts with AEC expertise, and
further optimizing the algorithms. In addition, database discipline and correctness must be
increased, and mis sing data must be decreased, in order to optimize the platform.
When it comes to creating a successful integrated design, BIM is one of the most critical
supporting elements. Incorporating data from several disciplines and stages of the constructio n
proces s into a single model is made feasible by BIM (Rizal ,2013). As a result, early in the
design process, InPro establishes a conceptual framework for client and project participant
collaboratio n based on an open informatio n environme nt.
The use of BIM allows for performance -based design, in which data about a building’s future
performance is taken into account while making design decisions. 3D visua liza tio n, specs, and
cost projections are the three primary components of InPro project BIM .
Fig 1.1 An ex ample of a building which needs InPro BIM
Verifying the design against the criteria and Figure 1.1 represents the common data environme nt
folder structure ( chen et.al, 2019) which is the first step in making any decisions. Ideas are
trans formed into concepts, then proposals are expanded, and fina lly results are authorized as
outcomes in the decision -mak ing process.
1.4.5 BIM de sign change s
In constructio n projects, owner -generated design alteratio ns are frequent, but they may be
problematic for a variety of reasons, includ ing financ ia l and legal ones. Making reasonable
judgments about whether or not to continue with design modifica tio ns requires an understand ing
of the ripple impact of those changes. As a result, a visualizatio n model based on B IM is needed
to c ombat the challenge s of early detection of design modificatio ns and the resulting effects.
Component level pair comparisons are used to detect design changes and their effects on other
components in a structured report using the proposed model’s BIM models, as intended and
altered. A project example was used to demonstrate how a suggested modifica tio n affects a
project and to verify the approach. It is hoped that the suggested model would help owners make
informed choices about their proje cts by providing them with a fresh mechanism for gathering
informatio n. Architects and build ing owners alike will greatly profit from this .
It is possible to see in 3D BIM the impact of a desired design change on all of the project’s
architectura l and non -architec tura l components using the Revit add -on “Check Change”. This
approach also offers the user with an in -depth report on all the changes made and their
reverberations. Data collecting, data analysis, and reporting and highlighting are the three
primar y components of the suggested paradigm. As -planned and altered BIM models are inputs
for the Check Change add -on through the data capture module.
1.4.6 Acquisition of data
The BIM models created is able to provide a unique identifie r to the Check Change add -on. As
an example, a 450 mm circular column is part of the family, but a 600 mm rectangle column is
part of a particula r kind of a family item, such as the wall. Assembled components are identified
by their assembly code and unique identifier. It then exports and saves the created BIM models,
includ ing all of the previously described component informa tio n, to a central database. Open
both BIM models in Revit and choose one of them to be your base and the other one to be your
as-changed. The system then saves b oth models. Even once the user opens the model in the
interface, the system does not enable the user to make any modificatio ns to the basic model that
was origina lly designed.
1.4.7 Analysis of data
The suggested model then does a component -by -compo ne nt comparison of the two BIM models’
components based on their unique identifie rs to find the discrepancie s between the two BIM
models. In the suggested approach, we begin by comparing the IDs of comparable components and
then identifying the discrepancies. As a consequence, a list of components that have been added to,
removed from, or updated in the BIM model as it has been altered is generated for review. Using the
list of altered components, the proposed model creates a room -grouping command that includes a
new property for the Revit components. This command identifie s the connection between the
changed components. Micro -leve l WBS, which organizes the project’s floor area by area and
assigns the same ID to components in the same area, is used in this command. In the suggested
model, the group ID enables to execute the ripple impact analysis for each altered component of the
as-changed model. User picks primary architectura l system components based on owner’s specified
design adjustments after gathering all components of model as-changed or as-planned. As a result,
the system identifies which components are most likely to be affected by the change and displays a
list of all those in the affected group that are linked to the primary source. The ripple effect of a
change may be defined as the change that affects all the components that are related to the primary
source of change. So the suggested model undertakes an examinatio n of the ripple impact on two
levels: components related to the primary source of change (same group ID) or surrounded by it
(differe nt group ID). So as a result, it is possible to give a user with informatio n about the change’s
course, showing its source and its consequences.
1.4.8 Re porting and highlighting
Change’s ripple impact may be analyzed in two ways using the suggested model. Using the Revit
UI, the first offers a report of the change’s ripple impact. The user may see the source of the
modificatio n and the list of affected components in the report. An as-changed model and an as-
planned model are included in the report, with each includ ing informa tio n on the component’s
physical characteristic s, such as its length, height and weight.
When a BIM model has been modified or added, a component ID and position may be included in a
change report, as well as a report detailing the model’s origina l state before changes were made.
Reports provide informatio n such as family type, assembly code, and assembly description for each
component. It is easier to grasp the breadth and type of a modificatio n imple me nted when BIM
models are shown side -by -side. Using a color code, the results of the ripple impact study may be
shown in a second mode that highlights the various sorts of changes in both BIM models using a
distinct color. For example, the newly added components are green in the as-changed BIM model,
while the removed components are red, and the modified components are yellow in both models. In
order to discover the link between a change’s cause and effect, the user first picks the change’s
primary cause from the BIM as-changed model, then the ripple effect is highlighted. In the
suggested approach, Revit’s unique ID for each component is used to connect the report to the BIM
model. Afterwards, the user may choose a component in the model and retrieve the component’s
data in the report, or the other way round.
1.4.9 Informatio n e valuation and manage me nt
People and organiza tio ns are still re-formatting and disseminating informatio n manua lly in the
constructio n industry, and academics have found this to be the case in their efforts to propose new
informatio n manageme nt technologie s and frameworks. Lost time and money are incurred due to
the loss of data when informa tio n is transferred or transformed, as well as rework, wasted time spent
finding the most valuable informa tio n in a document, and late, incomp lete, uncoordina ted, or
improper intercha nge of informa tio n. As a result of the constructio n industry’s fragmentatio n,
incompatib ilitie s in semantic s, procedure, and software commonly occur across cooperating
entities (clients, designers, contractors, suppliers, and so on), increasing the previously noted waste
(Anumb a,2005). In sum, it is apparent that coordinatio n of informa tio n sharing is the most
important aspect of any new informa tio n manageme nt system. A system that can accommodate the
many viewpoints and demands of the various professiona l disciplines participating in the build ing
process is a major problem, according to (Dawood et al,2002). In the constructio n industry, BIM is
well -suited to satisfy these demands. The synergie s between BIM and lean build ing concepts have
been established by Sacks et al (2010), who also found that informa tio n may be handled leanly.
There is, however, a paucity of research devoted to evalua ting the effect of BIM’s ability to measure
and coordinate informatio n flows.
The execution of a project might be hampered if there are problems with the constructio n interfaces.
Entity interface diffic ulty is frequently a result of poor design. In addition, poor designs may lead to
constructio n diffic ulties, such as laborers having to work in a cramped environme nt. The
Constructio n Industry Research and Informatio n Association (CIRIA) defines the constructability:
the design efforts may be employed in the constructio n phase, allowing contractors to carry out their
constructio n work fast and smoothly .Designers, by definitio n, need to understand build ing, yet they
are often lacking in the practical expertise needed to do so. As a result, contractors who wish to carry
out their work effective ly must first identify any possible issues with the origina l designs that they
create. Even if no issues are discovered, this procedure must be completed.
1.4.11 Use of BIM in the e xamination of constructability
In order to ensure the success of a project, designers must pay attention to the integratio n of various
systems, such as the structure and the HVAC system. Constructability is affected by interface
diffic ulties, which should be addressed as much as possible prior to constructio n in order to reduce
the possibility of reworks or activitie s that cannot be created due to a lack of space. During this
procedure, the model review stages related to constructability are established. It’s critical to the
project’s success. The BIM applicatio n’ s performance will be poor if severe issues aren’t discovered
at this stage. This needs the involve me nt of experienced engineers with constructio n expertise.
Space, measureme nt, and clash issues are three of the most typical build ing issues. Each of the three
diffic ulties discussed in the following sections will be addressed using the BIM technique outlined
in the parts that follow.
1.4.12 Space re vie w
Traditio na l methods include integrating architectura l, structura l, and interior design engineering
drawings to determine the build ing’s net usable area, includ ing things like the distance between a
TV and a couch. While integrating these technica l drawings, however, issues such as inconsiste nt
versions of drawings, elaborate lines and notations that may overlap on a single CAD model, and a
lack of ease in reviewing net elevations are discovered and addressed. As a result, BIM offers an
effic ie nt way to examine the combined design informa tio n.
1.4.13 M e asure me nt re vie w
The plan drawing of a building is done initia lly, and then the elevation and section drawings are
done as well. When creating these drawings, the draftsman must annotate each architectura l object’s
position in relation to others. As an example, while changing the number of steps on a staircase, the
designer must keep in mind the user’s climb ing height. There will be post -constructio n issues, such
as a lack of obvious height at the staircase for user ascending, if the draftsman cannot manage the
linkages between plan, elevatio n, and section. BIM technology is used to address this issue. A
method for users to verify the design’s link between building items is provided. Measurement
design may now be checked more easily using BIM technology. In addition, since BIM is a
database, designers are able to guarantee that the design is consistent. When a designer moves or
modifies a single object’s characteristics in the plan view, the changes are reflected in all of the
object’s associated drawings. In addition, if you were given the annotatio n for this item, the
measureme nt annotatio ns will be updated accordingly. Using two views in one window, designers
may see the changes right away. This synchronizatio n capability is the finest benefit for designers.
However, users will be able to do measureme nt checks more easily if BIM is used to accomplish
1.4.14 De te ction of Clashe s
Manpower is always required to carry out constructability testing. This is how constructability
reviews have traditio na lly been conducted. Despite this, there will be conflic t issues as a result.
Using 2D CAD, the engineer verifie s and evaluates the engineering drawing, which incorporates
the structura l, architecture and MEP, in order to identify the conflicts and inconsiste nc ies in the
building. Enginee rs can’t handle it. Even the most skilled and senior engineer can’t detect all of the
conflic ts in 2D CAD because of the substantia l intricac y of this integrated picture. Engineers, on the
other hand, have the benefit of a BIM solutio n that allows them to quickly identify and resolve
disputes. The modeler may use the clash detection capability when creating a BIM model to identify
possible conflicts. As a result, engineers will be able to see the collisio n detection report generated
by the system. Because the heart of BIM is a database, it is possible to preserve consistency even
when objects are moved, destroyed, or updated based on a 3D model assessment. It is thus feasible
to improve building quality by using BIM technology, which may help engineers to identify
conflic ts and other constructio n issues, such as a lack of constructio n space, as early as possible.
1.5 Re se arch M e thodology
1.5.1 M ode l de ve lopme nt
To perform the assessment of the BIM adoption model in Australia three steps were undertaken
in this study. During the first step all the variable which were noted to have direct impact on
BIM adoption are listed this is done by performing a thorough asses sment of the literature
presented on BIM adoption and imple me nta tio n. Among the variable listed the BIM adoption is
noted to be the most significa nt variable which influe nces the constructio n firm decision of
adopting BIM and the level of imple me ntatio n re quired for the project success.
The next stage involve s development of a conceptual model which is created with the use of
cause -effect analysis with the developed model the logica l relations of adoption choice and the
factors which influe nce BIM adoption can be understood. The foundatio n of the developed
conceptual model is from the literature presented in the paper and this is further used in
conjunctio n with the survey done from various stakeholders in Australia n constructio n firms, the
final model is de veloped by performing online interviews from various senior and junior
members of various constructio n firms. The variable initia lly listed are then refined using
mathematica l analysis such as SEM and CFA.The relationship of the variable is later assessed
using route analysis. In the last phase of the investiga tio n the summary of the find ings is done
and the importance of each of the variable is assessessed on how they generally influe nc e the
BIM adoption choice, with mathematica l computatio n the strength o f the different pathways of
the developed conceptual model is investiga ted and verificatio n of the model done. The
respective methodologies and results of each of the development stages are outline in the next
section of this paper.
The figure below shows the sector and subsectors which the survey focus ed primarily on, in this
assessment both primary data and secondary data were used in conducting analysis. It was noted
that majority of the respondents came from architectura l and constructio n manage me nt firms.
Fig 1.1 sectors which respondents came from.
The respondents came from all the regions of Australia includ ing Tasmania, Queensland, New
south Wales , Victoria, East Australia and west Australia. Both non -user and user of BIM
participated in the survey. Most of the interviewee s had more than 15year of experience in
constructio n industry. This is represented in the figure shown below.
Fig 1.3Ex perience of respondents in construction sector.
1.5.2 Variable s of propose d BIM adoption mode l
Building information modelling adoption (BIMA)
In the proposed model, BIM adoption is the fina l variable, which refers to the expected amount of
BIM imple me nta tio n in the Australia n constructio n sector. The imple me ntatio n obstacles and
advantages of various BIM deployme nt levels vary. The usage of BIM as a 3D modeling tool
without sharing data with other disciplines has been proven to result in fewer interoperability
concerns and coordinatio n challenges than total BIM integratio n .
BIM imple me nta tio n levels are categorized based on how projects and informatio n are
communicated and exchanged within a company. It’s very uncommo n for Level 1 BIM users to
have a “silo mindset, ” whereas Level 2 and 3 BIM users communica te project informa tio n with one
other across discipline s (BIM Industry Working Group, 2011). As part of this research, BIMA
records the organiza tio n’s encourageme nt of personnel to use BIM, the organizatio n’ s readiness to
incorporate BIM into its workflow, and the usage of BIM files as a communica tio n foundatio n for
projects. As seen in Table I, BIMA was able to acquire data at many distinct levels.
Adoption motiv ation (AMo)
BIM adoption in Australia has been encouraged by a number of factors that include a series of
“triggers. ” There are a variety of external and interna l factors, such as a client’s desire, that might
lead to an increase in the use of visualizatio n in the company. The rising number of governme nt –
funded projects that demand BIM -formatted deliverab les and handovers may potentially be a
source of external impetus. The most important reason for the Australia n constructio n industry to
embrace an innovatio n is to improve their capacity to obtain new connectio ns and retain
relationships with current customers. However, incomp atib le working practices (with regard to the
BIM process) may have a detrimenta l impact on the Australia n constructio n industry’s motivatio n
(Arayici et al., 2011). BIM adoption motive is evaluated by examining these factors: optimizing an
organiza tio n’s working process, increasing organizatio na l competitive ness, meeting client needs as
well as cost -benefit analysis of the BIM imple me nta tio n. a (see Table II).
Potential benefits (PBen)
The PBen variable refers to what the Australia n constructio n industry considers to be the appealing
benefits of BIM adoption. For an organizatio n, the potential advantages of BIM deployment are
highlighted by perceived usefulne ss (Davis et al., 1992). AMo may be affected directly by PBen.
Effic ie nc ies in interna l process, for example, may benefit from these changes Variable Descriptio ns
of the various levels Adoption of BIM . The constructio n firm can also benefit from faster estimates
of project costs, enhanced project monitoring capabilitie s, an increased possibility of conflic t
identifica tio n earlier in the project, better external project communica tio n with interested
stakeholders, and so forth. Measures used for this variable in this research concentrate on the
organiza tio n’s adoption of BIM, rather than a personal viewpoint, therefore the organizatio n -le ve l
advantages are presented. The PBen variable was assessed using the items in Table III. 3.1.4
Table 1 information about BIM adoption v ariable
Pote ntial challe nge s (PChal).
For example, the PChal variable represents any BIM imple me ntatio n diffic ulties that an
organiza tio n may have. Financia l, cooperation, and human resources are the most likely areas of
concern for the Australia n constructio n sector in the near future. License payments, hardware and
softwar e upgrades, on -going maintena nc e fees, and staff training charges are the primary sources of
financ ia l strain. When other project partners aren’t utilizing BIM or are using BIM in a different
format, interoperab ility concerns might occur, making collaboratio n more diffic ult (Haynes, 2009).
Lack of experienced BIM professiona ls and technica l staff opposition to changing the current
workflow are the sources of challenge s from the people side (Zhou et al., 2012). In addition, the
BIM adoption process’s early disruptio ns and delays must not be overlooked (Yan and Damian,
2008). Table IV shows the corresponding description used in this research to account for the
influe nc e of probable diffic ulties on the decision to adopt BIM. ”
Knowle dge support (KSup )
In the context of BIM imple me nta tio n, KSup refers to a set of systematic knowledge support
activities offered to the constructio n firm. Support may come from either an outside source, such as
a governme nt agency or a consulting firm, or it can come from inside an organizatio n, thanks to the
efforts of its leaders. On the other hand, Egbu (2004) stressed the importance of Levels of
Variability and Their Corresponding Descriptors Motivating factors in the adoption process a more
effic ie nt working environme nt has a significa nt impact on an organiza tio n’s choice to use BIM,
according to Amo (adoption motivatio n) .
In order for an organizatio n to remain competitive, BIM adoption is significa ntly influe nced by this
necessity. The use of BIM facilita tes better communica tio n among project participants.
Table IV: Levels of diffic ulty and their descriptio ns in light of upcoming obstacles The BIM
adoption model is an organized knowledge manageme nt system with appropriate investme nt on
staff traini ng, on providing systematic organizatio na l strategies, procedures, and culture to adapt
innovatio n into working habits. Knowledge assistance from an organiza tio n’s knowledge
manageme nt system provides BIM -related workers with complementary professiona l capabilitie s
througho ut the imple me ntatio n phase. With the advent of BIM in the Australia n constructio n sector,
companies must ensure that their employees are adequately trained and educated. There are three
degrees of knowledge support in this study: BIM training, professiona l counseling in choosing BIM
tools, and technical support througho ut imple me nta tio n (see Table V).
Down time (DT)
If, for any reason, a system fails to offer or execute its core functio n for a period of time, then it is
referred as DT. System downtime may have a negative impact on productivity and raise project
costs, according to earlier research (Allia nce for Telecommunicatio n Industry Solutio ns, 2006).
(Brouwers, 1986). It has been shown that BIM adoption failure is mostly a result of downtime costs
(Rogers et al., 2015). Incompatib le hardware, incompatib le software, and improper system
functio ning all contribute to BIM downtime (Newton and Chileshe, 2011; Cao et al., 2015). For the
first time in Australia n constructio n’s innovatio n imple me ntatio n process and in contrast to PChal’s
concentratio n on financ ia l, cooperation, and people diffic ulties, this study estimates the importance
of establishing an informatio n communicatio n technolo gy infrastructure (Smith and Dekker, 199 7).
As a result, the DT variable is examined in this research in three ways: the impact of technica l
downtime on operational risk for the organiza tio n, the probability of downtime, and the
consequences of downtime (see Table VI). 3.1.7
Staff building information modelling capability (SCap).
SCap refers to the capacity of current employees to use and manage BIM tools and files. According
to earlier research, lack of BIM -experienced technicia ns is one of the biggest obstacles to BIM
adoption in the Australia n constructio n sector (Bew and Richard, 2008; Gilliga n and Kunz, 2007).
According to Seaden et al. (2003), the Australia n constructio n sector is less likely than bigger
organiza tio ns to recruit experienced staff. In this research, the SCap variable is analyzed by gauging
the ability of employees to use BIM and mainta in it (Table VII).
1.5.3 Building informatio n mode lling (BIM ) propose d adoption mode l
Figure 1 depicts a potential BIM adoption model based on a cause â€“and â€“effec t analysis of the
identified factors. Adopting BIM in practice Levels of Variability and Their Corresponding
Descriptors Supported by expertise .
Table V and VI description of downtime and k nowledge support v ariables.
There are two primary streams in the model, as seen in Figure 1. BIM adoption in the Australia n
constructio n sector is motivated by the potential advantages and obstacles connected with its
imple me ntatio n. The second stream takes into consideratio n the BIM capabilities of the employees
in operating BIM tools and the technica l downtime that affects the constructio n firm’s knowledge
support positive ly or negative ly. Figure 1 shows that AMo and KSup factors have a direct impact on
the constructio n FIRM ‘s BIM adoption choice. Next, the suggested model’s direct and possible
indirect relationships are examined by analyzing the input obtained from the Australia n
constructio n industry in the constructio n industry participating in this research.
1.6 Re sults and data analysis
1.6.1 Analysis and surve y de sign me thods
Interviews and questionna ires were conducted in order to gather the quantitative and qualitative
data necessary for a better understand ing of the BIM imple me ntatio n processes in Australia’s
constructio n sector and to verify a BIM adoption model that was suggested. Those who took part
in the study were drawn from a pool of constructio n industry professiona ls. To get a better
understand ing of BIM adoption and expectations, open -ended questions were posed througho ut
the intervie w rather requiring respondents to answer question posted in the appendix.
The responses were used to examine the industry’s BIM comprehensio n, the utilizatio n of the
technology, and the advantages of BIM deployment using descriptive analysis. BIM users and
non -users were divided into two groups with the purpose of examining variatio ns in advantages
anticipated and perceived from BIM adoption, as well as the diffic ulties that come along with them.
Non -BIM users, on the other hand, are those whose present employers have yet to adopt BIM, despite
the fact that they may have previously utilized BIM tools in the past.
SEM was used to test the study’s hypotheses and verify the suggested BIM adoption model by
determining the strength of the influe nce of each component contributing to the adoption decision.
SEM data was analyzed with the help of AMOS, a program that does a maximum likelihood analysis.
Two -step approaches are recommended in these instances, so that the significa nce of all pattern
coeffic ie nts may be tested in order to identify misspecifica tio n. First, the valid ity and reliability of the
measureme nt model are evaluated for their adequacy and dependability.
Convergent valid ity assessment and discrimina nt valid ity assessment are part of a measureme nt
model’s construct val id ity test, which concentrate on the latent variables’ convergence and the
manife st variables’ discrimina nt. Path analysis is used in the second stage to verify the initia l
hypothesis. It is the goal of path analysis to find out whether or not the hypothesized effects on BIMA,
the fina l dependent variable, are real and how large they are.
1.6.2 The ge ne ral informatio n of the re sponde nts
Australia n constructio n workers were polled for this study. To see how BIM is being used in the small
Australia n constructio n firms , both BIM users and non -BIM users are surveyed. A senior member of
each constructio n firm was chosen to help in the survey because of their expertise in BIM
technologies. Each BIM -using business was asked to specify how long they’ve been using the
software and what kinds of projects they’ve used it for. Some of the responses were rejected since
they had insuffic ie nt informa tio n. The large majority of the respondents worked for small
constructio n companies with fewer employees providing good basis for comparing the decision –
making processes of smaller and larger Australia n constructio n companies.
1.6.3 Surve y re sponse on knowle dge of BIM
Understanding BIM and its capabilities is essential for making informed decisions about its adoption.
According to the survey results, respondents had varying levels of knowledge of BIM.
According to the data, the respondents had different meanings of BIM compared to those agreed upon
in the constructio n literature . Most of the Sm all businesses workers thought of BIM as a piece of
software, while others thought of it as a method for planning constructio n projects.
When it comes to workers of medium -sized businesses, the most popular definitio ns of BI M were â€˜It
is a modelling softwareâ€™. The others thought as a databa se, and a form of facility representatio n it
was noted that smaller constructio n firm s tend to have limited knowledge of BI M and most of them
often regard ed BIM as a modeling program . This really influe nced how they perceived BIM and
their motivatio n of adopting this software to be used in their organiza tio n since they didnâ€™t have
enough knowledge on what specifica lly BIM was.
This is made necessary to create a BIM adoption model to understand this phenomeno n. The
BIM adoption mode l developed used a 2 test for homogene ity to determine the differenc es and
similarities between medium and small constructio n organizatio ns’ comprehensio n of BIM . When
the sample size of the group under investiga tio n was n oted to be below five the fisher test was
Table X shows the 2 test find ings for the influe nce of the organizatio n’s size and BIM -use status on
BIM comprehensio n. Size and user experience have no influe nce on an organizatio n’s BIM
comprehensio n, according to the null hypothesis in the 2-test.
Respondents were separated into two categories for the sake of this paper’s analysis: those who used
BIM and those who did not. BIM user experiences are shown in Figure 3 of the survey results.
In all most of the BIM users consider BI M as a modeling software, followed by a facility
representatio n , a process , a database , and a 2D design too l. Non -BIM users, on the other hand, are more
likely to think of BIM as a database. Most knowledge levels are likely to reject the null hypothesis at a 95
per cent confidence interva l level, but not always when evaluating the BIM user experience variable.
That prior BIM experience is crucial in establishing an organiza tio n’s degree of grasp of BIM
technology is shown here in this way.
Figure 2 v arious companies understanding of BIM
1.6.4 BIM applications
Among BIM users and BIM non -users, the popularity of various BIM applicatio ns is seen in Figure 4. Apps
that have been examined by the constructio n firm as potentially valuab le, those that have actually been chosen
or imple me nted, and those which BIM non -users are interested in. Results are displayed in Figure 4, where 3D
visualizatio n is most commonly utilized by Australia n constructio n sector users, followed by cost
estimatio n/cost planning and quantity take -offs.
Figure 4 illustration of the common BIM applications in Australian construction industry.
Non -users’ anticipated uses for 3D visualizatio n continue to be at the top of the list, followed by quantity take –
off , cost estimate, and cost planning. In contrast, just a small percent of the firms has investigated deploying
procurement, constructio n logistic s, and safety manageme nt softwar e. BIM is more often seen by current
users as model ing software, which explains the appeal of 3D visualiza tio n apps, according to the perceptions
of study participants. In the minds of non -users, BIM is nothing more than a database from which project –
specific informa tio n, such as the kinds and amounts of materials, may be retrieved. BIM and non -BIM users’
percentage significa nce test findings for BIM applicatio ns they’ve contemplated deploying are summarized
in Table. BIM and non -BIM users are assumed to be indiffe re nt when it comes to deploying certain BIM
applicatio ns. There was only a tiny sample of non -BIM users to employ for analyzing environme nta l analysis,
lifecyc le maintena nce and facility manageme nt using Fisher’s test.
There are statistica lly significa nt differe nces between BIM users and non -BIM users when it comes to
evaluating 3D visualiza tio n ; consequently, the null hypothesis should be discarded since there is statistica l
significa nce at the 95% confidence interva l level. BIM users were significa ntly more likely than non -users to
have contemplated deploying BIM as a 3D visua liza tio n approach.
Table XI Fischer test of BIm applications between non user and user of BIM
No significa nt differe nce s were found between BIM and non -BIM users in any of the other programs tested. In
the proport ion’s equivale nc y test, non -BIM users showed little interest in procurement, constructio n logistic s,
or safety manageme nt. Constructio n in Australia is following the trend of bigger enterprises in which 3D
visualizatio n is the most often used applicatio n. However, when comparing the second most commonly used
applicatio n, the significa nt disparity between the Australia n constructio n sector and bigger constructio n
organiza tio ns reveals.
Most of the respondents agreed that BIM was mostly used in Build ing manageme nt applicatio ns while
“cost estimating and cost planning” was found to be Australia’s second most popular BIM applicatio n, whilst
“clash detection” was shown to be the second most popular applicatio n in major constructio n enterprises. This
disparity might be related to the fact that major contractors tend to take on much larger projects involving
several partners, which increases the likelihood of confrontatio ns and the usefulness of collisio n detection. It
is possible to have a better understand ing of the functio n that BIM knowledge plays in improving the degree of
BIM adoption by looking at Figure 4. In most cases, evaluating a BIM applicatio n as a potential benefit to
Australia n constructio n leads to imple me nta tio n of the applicatio n, according to a comparison of the
percentage of contemplated vs imple me nted applicatio ns.
The overall trend of currently imple me nted BIM applicatio ns resembles that of possibly contemplated
applicatio ns, as seen in Figure 4. As an example, in the case of 3D visua liza tio n , the percentage of the
Australia n constructio n industry considering or currently evaluating the applicatio n was only aroun d eight
percen t for 3D visua liza tio n was more than t en percen t, and around twenty -two percent was for cost
estimatio n and cost estimatio n in practic es. These practices accounted fo r the top three areas of applicatio n
which BIM was commonly employed. Simila rly, the results show a close correlatio n between the
percentage of the Australia n constructio n industry considering and imple me nting these applicatio ns when
looking at applicatio ns with overall low adoption rates, i.e., impleme nted percentages, such as constructio n
logistics and safety manageme nt. To put it another way, this shows that the low rate of adoption of these
applicatio ns is a result of a lack of consideratio n and assessment of their feasibility.
1.6.5 Be ne fits of BIM imple me ntatio n
Those who participated in this survey found that BIM imple me ntatio n had the greatest positive impact on
stakeholders’ comprehensio n of the project. Larger -scale operations and organiza tio ns have seen significa nt
cost and schedule control improve me nts as a result of the use of project manageme nt softwar e.
Project coordinatio n has been most successful when imple me nted by large constructio n companies,
according to the literature. Although few of the constructio n workers agre ed with this statement, there is
still a considerable number who felt that BI M helped stakeh olders better grasp project scopes and design
Table XII highlights of the benefits between non -BIM users and BIM users
The Australia n constructio n industry’s use of BIM and other modeling software may be attributed to this
outcome. More than half of BIM users report improved cooperation as a result of using BIM in their projects.
Non -BIM users and those who utilize BIM were both tested to see whether they ha d the same advantages from
BIM deployment. This is further supported by the 2 test for homogene ity between BIM users and non -BIM
users (Table XII), which demonstrat ed that the percentage of organiza tio ns interested in strengthe ning
cooperation via BIM was differe nt between BI M -users and non -BIM users . However, the findings reveal
that the two groups do not vary in terms of the other predicted advantages such as time savings and cost .
Benefits relating to time and money savings are not as large as they are described in the literature, based on the
study’s find ings.
When it came to speeding up project delivery and reducing project length, small architecture companies , said
that they experienced greater benefits because of their differe nt goals and organiza tio na l structure.
“Reduced conflicts â€ and “more design choices â€ are further advantages which were attributed to the use of
BIM . It’s also shown that non -users anticipate to profit from BIM deployment, as seen in Figure 5. More than
half of the responden ts cited “increased stakeholders’ knowledge of the project” as the most importa nt
advantage, followed by “reduced disputes”.
Similar to the outcomes of BIM usersâ€™ experience, non -BIM users in Australia n constructio n sector hope to
increase project stakeholdersâ€™ knowledge of project via BIM use. In contrast to BIM usersâ€™ comments, non –
BIM users ha d greater expectation in eliminating project disagreements than enhancing cooperation. Most of
the Australia n constructio n industry viewed as 3D modeling software that aids in attracting customers and
enhancing their professiona l reputation. Furthermore, this poll found that a considerable amount BIM user
had only been using BIM for two years or fewer. Saving time and increasing profits are long -term BIM
imple me ntatio n advantages that are unlike ly to be realized in the early phases of BIM deployme nt inside an
organiza tio n. BIM impleme nta tio n.
Fig 5 importance of BIM implementation
1.6.6 Challe nge s of BIM adoption
When asked about the most commonly encountered BIM imple me ntatio n obstacle, BIM users who took part
in this survey said “people’s unwillingness to shift from conventio na l workflow â€. Despite the fact that
imple me nting BIM necessitates new working practices, this is mostly due to employees’ overconfide nc e in
their own abilitie s. The absence of a proper ICT infrastruc ture inside a constructio n firm was another factor
contributing to the reluctance of employees to a new workflow. For the most part, the Australia n constructio n
was noted to be still using 2D CAD or manual sketching as their primary method of data input but thi s was
despite being fairly uncommo n for workers to lack the requisite technical knowledge and experience to
effective ly use the BIM workflow princip les and theories.
It was found that Australia n constructio n sector is not yet able to utilize BIM technologies to the full degree
because of the constraints of the current ICT infrastructure in Australia. This survey found that most of the
Australia n constructio n sector agree d with the second key problem of BIM adoption which included h ig h
imple me ntatio n costs , software and hardware upgrade charges, license fees, employee training expenses
are all factors which limits adoption rate of BIM software.
Figure 6 challenges facing BIM implementation
In this study, the find ings were slightly differe nt from previous studies that have looked at BIM adoption
barriers among larger constructio n organizatio ns and smaller architectura l firms. Ten major contractors in
Austral ia suggested data security issues related to BIM deployment are the most worr ying, especially in BIM
cloud computing. Construction firm respondents in this research, on the other hand, are still having diffic ulty
imple me nting BIM and integrating BIM into their organizatio na l process. The Australia n constructio n sector
is not concerned about the cyber security issues that are more common in network -based BIM
imple me ntatio ns this was the view according to some of the senior constructio n specialists .
A lack of BIM experience and high BIM imple me ntatio n costs seen as the most significa nt roadblocks to BIM
adoption by small architectura l businesses, owing to the diversity of their backgrounds. Non -users and users
of BIM intervie wed different weight on BIM imple me ntatio n issues.
Non -users cite d that â€œhigh imple me ntatio n costs” and “staff’ s inadequate experiences in BIM utiliza tio n ” as
the two most significa nt obstacles to BIM adoption, with almost half of non -users ranking these issues higher
than “people’s resistance to change. “.
There were some of non -users who agreed and had more convictio n that, â€œgreater communica tio n
challenge s with project partners who are not using BIM and “people’s reluctance to change” throughout the
imple me ntatio n phase as the common challenges that BIM faced . Non -BIM users and BIM users are equal
in terms of BIM imple me ntatio n challe nges in each population, according to the null hypothesis of the two
There was no indicatio n that the percentage of estimated or perceived BIM impleme nta tio n issues differed
substantia lly between BIM non -users and BIM users . â€œWhen a company imple me nts new technology, it is
likely that there will be a variety of technical and financ ia l issues â€. This was one of the statements by one of
the senior respondents who was interviewed.
1.6.7 M e asure me nt imode l ianalysis i
After icollecting idata, iwas ivital ito idetermine iwhether ithe isample isize iwas ienough , ito ivalidate ithis
imeasureme nt imodel ianalysis iwas iused . iSample isize iin ia iSEM ianalysis ican ibe ievaluated iby icomparing
ithe inumber iof ivariables ito isample isize; ian iacceptable ivalue iranges ifrom i20:1 ito i5:1. iThere iwere ieighty
iparticipants iin ithis iresearch, iand ithere iwere 7 ifactors iinflue nc ing ithe iadoption iof iBIM iwhich iwere ito ibe
iexamined. ibeing iexamined .
iThis istudy’s iSEM imethod ibegins iwith ia iCFA istep ito iassess ithe icollected idata’s iinterna l iconsistency iand
iconstruct ivalid ity. iCFA ifocuses ion ithe irelationship ibetween iSEM’s imanifest iand ilatent ivariables. iAt ithe
ioutset, iCronbach’s ivalue iis iused ito ievaluate ithe idata’s iinterna l iconsistenc y. iThere iwas ia istatistica lly
isignifica nt icorrelation ibetween ithe iCronbach icoefficie nt iand iCronbach’s ialpha iin ithis istudy, iwhich iis
igreater ithan ithe iminimum iacceptable ivalue iof i0.7.
As ipart iof ithe imeasureme nt imodel iassessment, ifactor iloadings, icomposite ireliability i(CR), iand iaverage
ivariance iextracted i(AVE) iare iused ito itest ithe ireliability iof ithe iproposed iconstructs, ii.e., ilatent ivariables,
iwhich iare ipresented iin iTable iXIV. iFactor iloading iindicates ihow imuch ia ifactor iexplains ia iconstruct. iCR iis
iused ito iassess ithe iinternal iconsistenc y iof ia ilatent ivariable . iA iconstruct’s iability ito iexplain ian iaverage
iamount iof ivaria nce iin iindicator ivariables iis imeasured iby ithe iAVE. i
Minimum iallowable ifactor iloadings, iCR, iand iAVE iare i0.5 iand i0.4 irespectively. iThere iis ionly ione ifactor
iloading ivalue iin ithis iresearch ilower ithan i0.504 i(PC2 ito iPChal), iwhile ithe ivalues iof ithe iother ithree ifactors
irange ifrom i0.410 ito i0.649. iModel ifitness, ievaluated iby ithe iGoF iindex, iis ian iimportant ipart iof iassessing
imeasureme nt imodels. iHere, iwe ihave iincluded ifive idiffere nt iGoF iindexes, iwhich iare: ithe i2 itest; istandard
iroot imean isquare iresidual; icomparative ifit iindex; iroot imean isquare ierror iapproximatio n; iand ithe
iparsimonio us icomparative ifit iindex. i
Here iare ithe isuggested ivalues ifor ithe iGOF iindices, iwhich iare ilisted iin ithe ifollowing iorder: iAt ileast ione iof
ithe ifollowing ivalues iis icorrect: i2/ = 1.723 (
0.8),iRMSEA i0.086 i( 0.8) i iTherefore, ithe imodel iis istatistica lly isupported ias
ibeing iadequately iorganized iand istructured, isuggesting ithat ithe ifindings igained imay ibe iused ito ievaluate
ithe iassumptio ns ithat ihave ibeen ideveloped.
Table XV Mathematical refinement of BIM implementation v ariables
Table XV displays a correlation matrix that examines the discrimina nt validity, in order to see whether
latent variables that are not intended to be connected are in fact uncorrelated. Latent variable AVEs
and correlations between latent variables in the same column are represented by diagonal AVE values
in the matrix; off -diago na l AVE values are squared correlation values. AVEs higher than off -diago na l
elements are required for an adequate degree of discrimina nt valid it y. Even while PCha l’s correlation
with DT (0.719) is stronger than its variances, it is clear from the matrix that the two are multico llinea r
(0.640). As a result of the large sample size and CR of more than 0.70, the Type II error rates are still
acceptable as result, multico lline arity had little effect.
1.6.8 Analysis of Structura l mode l
This study’s hypotheses may be tested based on the find ings of the measureme nt model analysis
described above. A path analysis is used to examine the assumptio ns in the structura l model
analysis. The goal of a route analysis is to find out whether and how much the hypothesized effects
on the final dependent variable really exis t.
Decomposing hypotheses into direct, indirect, and total effects may be done using path analysis to
determine whether or not total effects are significa n t. It is shown in Figure 7 that for each
hypothesis, the standardized path coeffic ie nt and the corresponding 95% confidence interva l (p)
may be found.
Path model variables are shown in Table XVI, which shows the indicated correlatio ns between
them. In order to figure out the standard route coeffic ie nts, apply the formula e below (Kline, 2015)
= 11+ 22+
= 1âˆ’ 2
2= 112 âˆ’ 2
In this equation 2represents the coeffic ie nt of correlatio n between variable 2 .This means
that if adoption modificatio n(Y) receives influe nce from Pchal (2) and Pben (1)the resulting
numeric a l analysis of 1 can be represented as
1= (1âˆ’ 212 )/(1âˆ’ 122)= 0.623 âˆ’ (âˆ’0.104 )(âˆ’0.057 )/(1âˆ’ 0.057 2)= 0.169
From the results presented in the path analysis diagram and table XV the major variable influe nc ing
BIM adoption in small Australia n constructio n companies included ( = 0.178 ,
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