Running head: TRANSPIRATION IN PLANTS Transpiration in Plants Madusha Anandarajah University of Melbourne Word count :739 Methods and procedure As per …
Running head: TRANSPIRATION IN PLANTS Transpiration in Plants Madusha Anandarajah University of Melbourne Word count :739 Methods and procedure As per the lab protocol manual Results Figure 1 Note: Error bars represent standard error. The results above in figure 1 demonstrate the transpiration rates for Viburnum odoratissimum under sun and shade conditions. In sun conditions there is higher transpiration rate at an average of 57.9 mL.m -2.hr -1 compared to that of shade condition which is at10 mL.m -2.hr -1.The standard deviation rates are 10.7 and 2.4 respectively for sun and shade conditions. The sun conditions are able to influence transpiration rates as observed where the rates of the shade and that of the sun is five times higher. The impact and influence of environmental condition play avital role in the transpiration rates. Discussion Transpiration process entails the vaporization of the liquid water in plant tissues and vaporization process in the atmosphere. Plants most often lose water through the stomata pores. They depict small pores which allow water and gases to pass. Vaporization process occurs in the intracellular spaces. The water exchange vapour is controlled by the aperture of the stomata (Wu et al., 2017). Similarly transpiration depends on the supply of the energy, the pressure gradient and wind. In this regard, air temperature, air humidity and wind are key factors in assessing transpiration. The results of this study demonstrate the effects of the environment on the transpiration process. The sun conditions are influences by high temperature, low humidity, wind and light conditions. In presence of light, plants tend to transpire faster in the light as compared to dark environment (Gates, 1966). This is due to the stimulation of the stomata opening and speeds up the transpiration warming the leaf, thus leading to opening of stomata allowing the transpiration process (Xu, Guo & Ye, 2019). Temperature influences rapid transpiration in plants. at 30 °C, leafs transpire 3times faster as compared at 20 °C, this could be the contributing factors as observed in the leafs of Viburnum odoratissimum allowing more transpiration process to take place. Other factors leading to possible mechanism of the transpiration process of the Viburnum odoratissimum plant are the humid conditions of the shade and sun. The rate of diffusion in any substances is influence by the concentration differences in the two region substances. Dry air allows for more diffusion to occur, leading to more water loss rapidly. Wind further, especially in no breeze conditions, leads to the leaf air surroundings to increase with humidity hence increasing the overall transpiration rates. Relative humidity depicts the water vapour present in the air as compared to water vapour able to hold water at any given temperature. A hydrated leaf has arelative humidity close to 100%, similarly to atmosphere on arainy day. Decrease in the atmosphere water leads to gradient impact leading to decreased transpiration similar to observation of the Viburnum odoratissimum placed in the shade as compared to the sun conditions. With this regard, transpiration allows for other processes such as the passage of oxygen and carbon dioxide to take place during photosynthesis process. Less saturated air with water vapour as observed in the sun conditions, will dry faster the surface of the cells, thus the photosynthesizing leaves lose alot of water through evaporation process (Hansen & Eckert, 1986). This lost water needs to be replaced so as to allow plant growth and sustenance. In essence, transpiration process is crucial for plants in that itaids photosynthesis effect, bring necessary nutrients from the roots to leafs and cools the leaves in hot and high temperature environment as noted in this study (fig 1). The application of the potometer in this study to assess the effect of environmental factors on transpiration rates was investigated. The water transpired by the plant is replaced providing the right volumetric levels of water and hence measuring the transpiration rate and amount of water lost under the two different conditions of the Viburnum odoratissimum plant. This study has shown that environmental factors play acrucial role in determining the rates and the process of transpiration in plants. Exposure to sun increases rapidly the transpiration rate in plants. Making itto absorb more water as compared to cool conditions where there are limited sun conditions (Gaastra, 1959). Viburnum odoratissimum pant demonstrates higher transpiration rate in sunny conditions as compared to the shade environment where there was lower rate of water loss to the atmosphere. Thus application of photometer is essential in determination of transpiration rates of plants in experimental studies. REFERENCES Gaastra, P. (1959). Photosynthesis of crop plants as influenced by light, carbon dioxide, temperature, and stomatal diffusion resistance (Doctoral dissertation, Veenman). Gates, D. M. (1966). Transpiration and energy exchange. The Quarterly Review of Biology , 41 (4), 353-364. https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/405156 . Hansen, P. C., & Eckert, C. A. (1986). An improved transpiration method for the measurement of very low vapor pressures. Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data ,31 (1), 1-3. doi.org/10.1021/je00043a001 Wu, X., Chen, G. Y., Zhang, W., Liu, X., & Xu, H. (2017). A plant â€transpiration â€process â€inspired strategy for highly efficient solar evaporation. Advanced Sustainable Systems , 1(6), 1700046. /doi.org/10.1002/adsu.201700046 Xu, K., Guo, L., & Ye, H. (2019). A naturally optimized mass transfer process: The stomatal transpiration of plant leaves. Journal of plant physiology ,234 ,138- 144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2019.02.004
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